Kimchi is a traditional fermented vegetable dish from Korea globally appraised as healthy food. The most common kimchi is baechu kimchi made from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa). Having been an integral part in the Korean food culture for thousands of years, kimchi is considered as a symbol of Korean identity and pride. The importance of kimchi in Korean food culture is reflected from a special annual event dedicated to the making of kimchi held in autumn known as kimjang. It is a festive communal traditional practice of preparing large quantities of kimchi to be consumed throughout winter. Such an activity has been listed as UNESCO’s Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity since 2013. Indeed, the unique culture of kimchi and kimjang stems from the ancient wisdoms and old traditions of Korea that are rich in philosophy. This review discusses different philosophical values of kimchi and the kimjang culture in Korean traditions, including their accordance with the ancient philosophy of yin and yang, the five elements (wood, fire, earth, metal, and water), medicinal food, beauty, communal activity, filial piety, and humanistic values. Understanding the philosophical values of kimchi and kimjang culture would make people see kimchi not only as a mere ethnic food, but also as a global cultural heritage that needs preserving for its continuity in the future.